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US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) focuses on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Mother-to-child transmission is a significant cause of new HIV infections among children worldwide. PMTCT has a triple life-saving benefit: saving the life of the woman through antiretroviral treatment, protecting the newborn from HIV infection, and keeping the family together by preventing orphanhood.
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Male circumcision is a surgical procedure during which the foreskin is totally or partially removed.
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Anti-AIDS drugs: Currently available anti-AIDS drugs do not cure the HIV infection. They do prevent the development of AIDS. Drugs can stop the virus being made in the body and this stops the virus from damaging the immune system, but these drugs cannot eliminate HIV from the body. People with HIV infection need to continuously take antiretroviral drugs.
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HIV test: Commonly-used HIV ELISA tests detect the antibodies produced by the immune system in response to HIV, as it is much easier (and cheaper) to detect antibodies than the virus itself. Antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to an infection (antigen). For most people, it takes 3 months for anti-HIV antibodies to develop. In rare cases, it can take up to 6 months. During this period of early infection a person is at their most infectious.
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What does it mean ‘safer sex‘? No sexual intercourse is 100% safe. Safer sex involves taking precautions that decrease the potential of transmitting / acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, through sex. Using male or female condoms correctly every time one has sex is considered safer sex.
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